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Russian national system of response to oil spills

Structure of Uniform State System (RSES) and Functional Subsystem of OSR in the framework of RSES

The Legislation of the Russian Federation classifies spills of oil and oil products as emergency situations (ES). Operations of oil spill contingency and response in the Russian Federation are organized and realized in the framework of Uniform State System for Prevention and Response to Emergency Situations (RSES).

RSES creates functional and territorial subsystems for prevention and response to emergency situations. Functional subsystems are formed by federal executive authorities and designated institutions according to their state functions. Territorial subsystems are formed within constituent entities of the Russian Federation; they consist of parts according to administrative and territorial division of these territories (Government Decree N 794 December 30, 2003).

Functional subsystem on organizing operations in marine oil spill contingency and response carrying out from vessels and objects regardless their departmental and national identity (Functional subsystem of OSR) was created by Ministry of Transport of the Russian Federation within the framework of RSES. Federal Marine and River Transport Agency (Rosmorrechflot) and its regional subdivisions are parts of Ministry of Transport of the Russian Federation, and they execute state function on organizing sea oil spill contingency and response operations. Ministry of Transport and Rosmorrechflot are competent national establishments which are responsible for providing preparedness and response to oil spills (according to International Convention OPRC-90, Government Decree N 794 December 30, 2003; Government Decree N 607 July 23, 2009, Government Decree N 53 April 6, 2009).

Functional subsystem of OSR is realized in the framework of RSES at federal, regional and facility level. “Regional level” means here “territory of constituent entity of the Russian Federation”, while as “facility level” means “companies which explore, transport, refine and store oil and oil products”.

Functional subsystem has several main goals. First of all, it is prevention/decreasing of risk of possible emergency situations which are caused by marine oil spills carrying out from vessels and objects regardless of their departmental and national identity. Another goal is effective usage of forces and facilities on localization and response of oil spills at sea.

To reach these goals successfully, Functional subsystem should solve some particular tasks:

-          to plan and realize marine oil spill contingency and response operations carrying out from vessels and objects regardless of their departmental and national identity;

-          to organize development and realization of OSR plans at federal level and at regional (basin) level, plans for administrations of maritime ports;

-          to adjust and adopt in the relevant order OSR plans for companies which explore, transport, refine and store offshore oil regardless of their departmental and national identity;

-          to organize marine emergency rescue services and formations as well as to prepare rescue workers to OSR operations;

-          to participate in accreditation of marine emergency rescue formations;

-          to keep up forces and facilities of emergency rescue formations, to realize them in real situations;

-          to plan and realize cooperation of emergency rescue formations with other state establishments of executive authorities minding their location;

-          to control technical equipment of OSR and preparedness of emergency rescue formations belonged to Rosmorrechflot;

-          to improve and develop functional subsystems, to equip them by modern specialized vessels and measures;

-          to realize methodic support of companies in the sphere of environmental protection of the sea, to control implementation of national legislation and international agreements in their activity;

-          to realize bilateral and multilateral international agreements in cooperation within control of oil pollution at sea;

-          to participate in development of regulatory acts in the sphere of OSCAR at sea;

-          to realize monitoring for oil pollution at sea transport and objects belonged to companies which explore, refine, transport and store oil and oil products regardless of their departmental and national identity;

-          to determine survival areas for vessels which transport oil and suffer distress at sea.

 

Government agencies, forces and facilities of RSES and OSR Functional subsystem

RSES unites government agencies, forces and facilities of functional subsystem, federal executive authorities, and executive authorities of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, local authorities and companies which are responsible for protection of people and territories from emergency situations including oil spills (Government Decree N 794 of December 30, 2003).

Functional subsystem in the framework of RSES acts due to joint work of government agencies, organizations of Rosmorrechflot, companies which explore, refine, transport and store oil and oil products regardless of their departmental and national identity and other companies which are responsible for offshore OSR operations.

The Government of Russia leads RSES. EMERCOM of the Russian Federation executes organizational and methodological management of OSR planning in the framework of RSES. Rosmorrechflot has general control at Functional subsystem. Federal Service for Supervision of Transport (Rostransnadzor) controls implementation of national legislation in the sphere of offshore OSR operations as well as preparedness to using forces and facilities of functional subsystem.

All levels of RSES and Functional subsystem of OSR have following government agencies and forces:

-          coordinating centers;

-          permanent government agencies;

-          commonplace agencies;

-          forces and facilities;

-          financial and material resources;

-          network systems, information and alerting systems.

Table 2.1. Federal level of Functional subsystem

Government agency

RSES

Functional system of offshore OSR

 

Coordinating agency

 

National Commission on Prevention and Response to ES and Providing Fire Safety, Commissions on Prevention and Response to ES and Providing Fire Safety

 

Commission on Prevention and Response to ES of Rosmorrechflot

 

Permanent government agency

 

EMERCOM of Russia

 

Rosmorrechflot

 

Commonplace agency

 

National Crisis Management Center, Crisis Management Centers, Information Centers

 

FBI “Morspassluzhba of Rosmorrechflot” and State Maritime Rescue Coordination Center

       

Table 2.2. Regional level of Functional subsystem

Government agency

RSES

Functional system of offshore OSR

 

Coordinating agency

 

Commission on Prevention and Response to ES and Providing Fire Safety of executive authorities in particular constituent entity of the Russian Federation

 

Commission on Prevention and Response to ES of Rosmorrechflot

 

Permanent government agency

 

Territorial authorities of Russian EMERCOM in particular constituent entity of the Russian Federation (Main subdivisions of Russian EMERCOM)

 

Branches of FBI “Morspassluzhba of Rosmorrechflot”

 

Commonplace agency

 

Crisis Management Center in particular constituent entity of the Russian Federation, Information Center, operations control duty desks of executive authorities in particular constituent entity of the Russian Federation and their territorial authorities

 

Maritime Rescue Coordination Centers, Maritime Rescue Subdivisions and operations control duty desks of BASU and UASPTR 

     

Table 2.3. Facility level of Functional subsystem

Government agency

RSES

Functional system of offshore OSR

 

Coordinating agency

 

Commission on Prevention and Response to ES of companies which explore, refine, transport and store offshore oil and oil products regardless of their departmental and national identity

 

Commission on Prevention and Response to ES of establishments belonged to Rosmorrechflot, Commission on Prevention and Response to ES of companies which explore, refine, transport and store offshore oil and oil products regardless of their departmental and national identity

 

Permanent government agency

 

Structural subdivisions of organizations which are responsible for protection of people and territories from ES

 

Administration of Maritime Port in responsible area in maritime ports, FSUE “Rosmorport” and its subdivisions

 

Commonplace agency

 

Operations control duty desks of companies which explore, refine, transport and store offshore oil and oil products

 

Operations control duty desks of maritime transport companies, maritime ports, subdivisions of “Rosmorport”, shipping and other   companies which explore, refine, transport and store offshore oil and oil products regardless of their departmental and national identity

 

 

Forces and facilities of RSES and Functional subsystem of offshore OSR in the framework of RSES and order of its participation in operations

Forces and facilities of RSES are specialized forces and facilities of federal executive authorities, executive authorities of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, local authorities, organizations and public associations which participate in oil spill contingency and response operations. Forces and facilities of each level of RSES consist of forces and facilities of permanent preparedness which are meant for operative contingency and response to ES (forces of permanent preparedness) (Government Decree N 794 of December 30, 2003).

Basic permanent forces and facilities of functional subsystem of offshore OSR are professional marine emergency rescue formations belonged to FBI “Morspassluzhba of Rosmorrechflot”, they compose 9 branches: Baltic, Northern, Primorsk, Sakhalin, Kamchatka, Caspian, Arkhangelsk, Azovo-Chernomorsk, Kaliningrad.

Forces and facilities of functional subsystem of offshore OSR involve multifunctional, rescue and specialized vessels, water crafts for oil spills contingency and response operations, marine specialized subdivisions with qualified personnel and modern equipment; forces and facilities of local and contract professional emergency rescue formations of companies which explore, refine, transport and store offshore oil and oil products regardless of their departmental and national identity (companies participate in oil spill contingency and response operations according to OSR plans).

Subdivisions of FBI “Morspassluzhba of Rosmorrechflot” and maritime ports keep twenty four hour service of OSR forces and facilities in order to carry out operative response to offshore oil spills. All branches locate in their responsible areas such specialized tools as multifunctional rescue vessel or towing rescue vessel with OSR equipment, marine specialized subdivisions on OSR (also with necessary equipment), supplementary vessels and water crafts.

Forces and facilities of functional subsystem of offshore OSR are implemented due to developed OSR plans, these plans are:

-          federal plan – oil spills on federal level, it supposes possible transportation of OSR resources from one region to another, sometimes even with attraction of international resources;

-          regional plan – oil spills on regional level, it supposes possible usage of OSR resources of local water area, basic measures here are forces and facilities of local subdivision of FBI “Morspassluzhba of Rosmorrechflot”;

-          plan of administration of maritime ports – oil spills within the responsible areas of administration of maritime ports;

-          plan of OSR companies – oil spills at the objects of companies which explore, refine, transport and store offshore oil and oil products regardless of their departmental and national identity (Order of Ministry of Transport of the Russian Federation N 53 of April 6, 2009).

  FBI “Morspassluzhba of Rosmorrechflot” organizes and controls forces and facilities of its subdivisions, supplying emergency rescue preparedness and response to offshore OSR operations, besides it sets the necessary level of this preparedness, organizes and controls carrying out offshore OSR operation from vessels and objects regardless their departmental and national identity.

EMERCOM of Russia coordinates activity of emergency rescue services and emergency rescue formations on the territory of the Russian Federation. Main subdivisions of EMERCOM of Russia controls activity of emergency rescue services and emergency rescue formations on the territories of Russian constituent entities (Government Decree N 794 of December 30, 2003).

 

Financial and material resources stockpile

According to Russian Legislation, financial support of RSES and of operation on contingency and response to ES is provided by resources of relevant budgets and owners (users) of property (Government Decree of the Russian Federation N 794 of December 30, 2003).

Companies which explore, refine, transport and store offshore oil and oil products are to make up stockpile of financial and technical resources for OSCAR (Government Decree of the Russian Federation of April 15, 2002).

Organizations of all forms of ownership participate in response operations to ES by own resources (Government Decree of the Russian Federation N 794 of December 30, 2003).

The Government of the Russian Federation sets the order to finance operations on contingency of ES by resources from its reserve fund on contingency and response to ES and consequences of natural disasters (Government Decree of the Russian Federation N 794 of December 30, 2003).  

In order to liquidate consequences of ES, EMERCOM of Russia can use special-purpose financial resource for contingency and response to ES at industrial organizations, during construction works and at transport (Government Decree of the Russian Federation N 794 of December 30, 2003).   

Alerting and information system

According to Russian Legislation, federal authorities, authorities of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, local authorities and administration of organizations are to inform quickly and correctly about the protection of people and places from ES and safety measures, about possible and current ES, about means to protect people. This information should be announced via mass media or any other way of information including specialized equipment of public information in the crowded places.

The responsible establishments for providing information of functional subsystem of offshore OSR are State Maritime Rescue Coordination Center of “Morspssluzhba of Rosmorrechflot”, Maritime Rescue Coordination Center and Maritime Rescue Subdivision. Global Maritime Distress and Safety System is responsible for receiving messages about offshore oil spills, for providing connection between vessels and Maritime Rescue Coordination Centers, Maritime Rescue Subdivisions and control staff for operations on offshore OSR, as well as for providing information about safe navigation for vessels.

Companies which explore, refine, transport and store offshore oil and oil products are to inform relevant state authorities and local authorities about oil spills in accordance with the right order.

Alerting about offshore pollution by oil and oil products is done in the Russian Federation in accordance with Data Collection and Exchange Order in the sphere of protection of people and territories from ES of natural and man-caused character (Government Decree of the Russian Federation N 334 of March 24, 1997), and with Instruction on Order of Reporting about Maritime Area adopted by Ministry of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation and Roscomrybolovstvo.

Relevant OSR plans contain necessary data concerning schemes of alerting and information systems, organization of information support in area of oil spills, prediction of development of oil pollution and possible consequences.

Mutual information support on oil pollution and OSR operations of relevant services in neighboring countries is done according to bilateral and multilateral international agreements of the Russian Federation on cooperation within prevention offshore oil pollution.

 

Regimes of authorities, forces and facilities of functional subsystem of OSR   

If there is no risk of emergency situation, authorities and forces and facilities of functional subsystem of OSR work in regular daily regime and organize following operations:

-          studying the current condition of sea transport, and measures connecting with oil and oil products in maritime area, prediction of offshore oil spills risks;

-          information collecting, development and exchange in the sphere of maritime area protection from oil spills, together with protection of people and territories from emergency situations due to spillage of oil and oil products;

-          planning actions of authorities, forces and facilities of functional subsystem of offshore OSR, organizing support of their activity;

-          emergency rescue preparedness to OSR;

-           organizing measures on development, adjustment, approval and modification of relevant offshore OSCAR plans;

-          preparing and training emergency rescue formations and rescue workers on offshore OSCAR issues;

-          cooperation between emergency rescue formations and other federal executive authorities on offshore OSCAR issues;

-          OSR table-top exercises;

-          international cooperation in the sphere of maritime area protection;

-          participation in operations of International Maritime Organization as well as international regional organizations;

-          dissemination of knowledge in the sphere of protection of people and territories from oil spills;

-          leading creation, location, storage and replacement of material resources for offshore OSR operations;

-          development and realization of target programs and scientific and research measures on offshore OSR;

-          statistical reporting on OSR operations, participation in investigation of reasons of offshore emergency situations (mainly caused by spills of oil and oil products), development of measures to eliminate causes of similar situations.

 

Authorities and forces and facilities of functional subsystem of offshore OSR can work not only in regular daily regime but also can find out one of following regimes:

  1. high alert regime – risk of emergency situation;
  2. emergency situation regime – emergency situation and its response.

 

High alert regime of authorities and forces and facilities of functional subsystem of offshore OSR intends following operations:

-          strengthening of control for sea transport, and measures connecting with oil and oil products in maritime area, prediction of offshore oil spills risks;

-          twenty four hour alert at stationary control centers carrying out by management and functionaries of authorities and forces and facilities of functional subsystem;

-          continuous collecting, development and exchange of data about possible offshore oil spills for authorities and forces and facilities of functional subsystem, as well as for involves government agencies and organizations;

-          operative measures on contingency and response to offshore oil spills, decreasing possible damage, increasing functional safety of relevant organizations on oil spills;

-          specification of relevant offshore OSCAR plans;

-          preparedness of forces and facilities of functional subsystem to offshore oil spills response operations, formation of operative groups and organization of their mobility in necessary risk;

-          compensation of material resources created for offshore OSR operations;

-          evacuation measures.

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Emergency situations regime of authorities and forces and facilities of functional subsystem of offshore OSR intends following operations:

-          information of management of federal executive authorities, executive authorities of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, local authorities and organizations as well as people about offshore oil spills;

-          twenty four hour alert for management and functionaries of authorities and forces of functional subsystem;

-          continuous control for sea transport, and activity connected with oil and oil products in the risk maritime area;

-          prediction of spreading of offshore oil spills, possible consequences;

-          offshore OSCAR operations and detailed support of forces and facilities of functional subsystem;

-          development of forces and facilities in the case of their necessity for OSR operation;

-          protective measures of particularly sensitive sea areas;

-          continuous collecting, development and exchange of data about conditions in oil spill area and about current OSR operation;

-          preparedness and in the case of necessity asking for help to neighboring countries in the framework of bilateral and multilateral international agreements of the Russian Federation in the sphere of maritime area protection;

-          on-going cooperation between relevant executive authorities and organizations on offshore OSR issues;

-          measures for employees survival during OSR operations.

 

Emergency situations regime on each level of functional subsystem has particular control staff:

-          federal level – federal control staff;

-          regional level – regional control staff;

-          facility level – control staff of objects belonged to sea transport and companies regardless their departmental and national identity which explore, refine, transport and store offshore oil and oil products. 

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